This article demonstrates that the genesis of the concept of Civil Society, explained by social
sciences as part of the Greek democracy and the consolidation of liberal democracy, in fact, it
has been linked to the ideas of freedom and individual trade by the Scottish Enlightenment.
We will analyze how this eighteenth-century school defines the Civil Society as the convergence
of private interests of individuals who participate in productive activities in order to get
material comfort, in a kind of market of the recognition, and achieve some kind of social scale
reference. This approach will be presented by exploring the reflections of Adam Ferguson,
Adam Smith and David Hume on the thinking of the Austrian economists Karl Menguer,
Ludwig von Mises and Friedrich August von Hayek.