The article deals with the period of the history of Fiume from January 5 to October 5, 1921, using the sources of the Zanella Archive (kept in the Archivio Storico di Fiume in Rome). The elections (April 24) for the constituent Assembly of the new Free State of Fiume, established by the Rapallo Treaty, are the central event. Before the elections, fascists and legionaries committed severe violence. After the unexpected victory of the autonomists, the violence multiplies, and the national-fascists try to establish an excep-tional government. The attempt fails because of the opposition of the plenipotentiary minister to Fiume Caccia Dominioni and the Italian government. However, the situation of public order remains turbulent. Only with the Bonomi government (July 4) and the ap-pointment of General Amantea as Extraordinary Commissioner will the convening of the Constituent Assembly be set for October 5.