Rivista Internazionale di Tecnica della Traduzione of the Scuola Superiore di Lingue Moderne per Interpreti e Traduttori, University of Trieste ( Dipartimento di Scienze Giuridiche, del Linguaggio, dell’Interpretazione e della Traduzione ) is a refereed international journal published once a year. The aim of the journal is to provide a forum of discussion for the multifaceted activity of translation as well as related issues such as terminology and terminography, lexicology and lexicography, contrastive analysis, corpus linguistics, and intercultural communication. The journal is mainly focused - but not limited to – specialized, i.e. non-literary, translation and is open to different theoretical approaches including contributions from qualified professionals operating on the translation market. Articles are mainly published in Italian and English, but articles in other European languages are also accepted, provided they are preceded by an Abstract in English. Each issue of the journal contains a section devoted to a specific topic, but contributions on other subjects as well as papers by young researchers and reviews are also very welcome
Our position on publishing ethics: Rivista Internazionale di Tecnica della Traduzione is a peer-reviewed journal. We believe that the review process promotes continuous quality improvement and therefore aim for it to be thorough, objective and fair. Each contribution is reviewed by both a member of the Editorial or Scientific Board of the journal and an external expert. We further put great value on the respect of ethical standards such as originality, clear definition of authorship, avoidance of plagiarism and distortion of data.
Browsing Rivista internazionale di tecnica della traduzione n.14 - 2012 by Issue Date
Many translation process researchers emphasize the possible didactic applications of their
empirical findings. At the other side of the fence, translator trainers make theoretical
claims based on classroom activity, events and (personal) experience or empeiria. In this
article, we focus on technology-based methodologies, such as keystroke-logging, screenrecording
and eye-tracking and we single out certain widely used corresponding tools. We
provide an example based on a research project with a pedagogical focus where the
performance of undergraduate students of translation is analyzed. The purpose of this
article is not to advocate any single perfect solution, but to provide food for thought and
motivate researchers, trainers (and program developers) to engage in fruitful dialogue
and bridge gaps within the framework of ecological validity.
Translation has always played a major role within the European institutions because it
provides the basis for democracy and communication among the Member States and
between the EU and its citizens. The enlargements brought about changes in the internal
organization of the institutions – including translation services and their workflow – to
respond to the new challenge of accommodating 23 official languages. A greater need for
translation support was met thanks to a growing number of shared tools and resources
developed over time, such as centralised web-based applications and meta-search engines.
This paper focuses on one specific tool available to translators working at the EU institutions,
i.e. an internally developed multilingual concordancer. Concordancers are widely used by
translators but little information is available about them in terms of tool evaluation or user
behaviour. This article presents a PhD research project aimed to partly fill this gap by
investigating the relationship between concordance searches (seen as manifestations of
translation problems) and language combination within the EU translation services.
Among Computer-Assisted Translation tools, translation memories are one of the most
used programs by freelance translators and translation agencies. The function of this
software is to store snippets of text in which the source text is divided together with their
translations. Our research is aimed to test if the use of this software affects the final
translated texts compared to other texts translated without memories, focusing on the
phenomenon of linguistic interference, traditionally considered a translation universal.
People with the same linguistic competence and background show different translation abilities and performances if subjected to different types of translation education. The paper reports on a study conducted to test this hypothesis. In the study, 20 subjects (the
experimental group) were selected homogenously in terms of their general English skills, their educational background, and their familiarity with the practice of translation.
They were given a pre-test so as to be evaluated on their language and translational skills, in the four domains of cognition, production, naturalness, and translation
techniques. The subjects attended a course during which they became familiar with the basics of translation. A post-test (post-test 1) was administered to the subjects to check their improvement. The results showed that their performance had improved. A new test
was administrated, with new (unseen) texts and the results again showed an increase in performance (post-test 2). This final test was given to a new group of subjects (control group) selected using the same criteria as the experimental group. The subjects who had
taken a brief translation course (the experimental group) stood head and shoulders above the second (control) group.
This paper explores the utilization of screen recording as a learner-centered methodology aimed at fostering the translator’s problem awareness and problem solving capacities.
Along with keystroke logging and eye-tracking, screen recording is generally held in high regard within the research community as an unobtrusive tool geared towards the documentation and empirical analysis of translator behavior, such as decision-making
and strategy execution. Of the three, only keystroke logging has consistently made its way from the research lab into the classroom for training student self-awareness of comprehension, transfer and production processes (cf. Alves 2005; Göpferich 2009; Hansen 2006a, 2006b; Jakobsen 1999; Lee-Jahnke 2005). Here, we will provide a brief overview of some of the preferred methods of process-oriented translator training to date, followed by a
discussion of how screen recording fits into the bigger picture. Finally, we will outline a series of concrete problem awareness training activities in which students critically analyze their own screen recordings, both in isolation and in conjunction with comparable screen
recordings produced by professional translators working with the same texts.
Since the entry into force of the Maastricht Treaty in 1993, cooperation in the fields of
justice and home affairs has become a matter of high priority for all Member States of
the European Union. This cooperation finds its concrete expression in a number of im -
portant legal instruments adopted by EU institutions, which are already, or are currently
being, implemented in the Member States. EU legal instruments represent sources of law
used to approximate the laws and regulations of the Member States. However, the EU’s
intervention in different legal subfields cannot prevent differences from being identified
among the legal systems involved (EU’s supranational and Member States’ national
legal systems). A terminological analysis of an English-Italian corpus of EU texts dealing
with the legal subfield of the standing of victims in criminal proceedings and their rights
allows the identification of differences in the Italian and British implementation
strategies and in their way of conceptualising even relevant key elements such as
“victim”. This paper, which is part of an ongoing PhD research project, illustrates the
main characteristics of bilingual legal terminology in a multi-judicial framework
(conceptual asymmetries, different degrees of equivalence, synonymy and polysemy) and
presents the current research work by showing a few examples of legal/cultural gaps,
which necessarily need to be taken into account when translating or mediating between
the two cultures/languages.
Translation teaching, which is supposed to bridge “the theory” and “the profession”, is often attacked by practitioners for its passivity and inertia. This critical attitude is seen in Turkey too, within the scope of various arguments. Yet, those who criticise academia
seem to forget that translator training as an institutionalised academic activity has the
power to change certain “malpractices” in the translation marketplace. In this study, we focused on the problems of the Turkish translation market and the symbolic power of the Translation Studies Department at Istanbul University in struggle with them. We used examples from our contribution to several initiatives on institutionalism and professionalism in literary and technical fields of translation/interpreting. Our contribution is
primarily based on a descriptive approach aiming to collect the empirical data on the subjects to bring the related parties together in order to be able to discuss the issues from all points of view. We hope to have created a positive interaction as such, which has improved the translation practice and led to some changes in our country’s translation market place for the better.
In this paper I will analyse the gap between the theory of terminology, the academic
discipline of translation studies, and real terminology, as it is specifically used in a
professional context and can be observed in reality.
In fact, what has long been presented as cornerstones of terminology in books for
translators is nothing but a set of almost always prescriptive principles about what
terminology should be, and not what it actually is. It thus gives to future translators
falsely idealized terms, unique references between terms and concepts and rigid
conceptual structures: principles which are not based on observation of reality.
The paper will analyse some of these myths and idealizations that have spread
through terminology as an academic discipline through real examples in French and
Spanish and will deal with some problems, such as inaccuracy, instability, completeness
and consistency, which should be pointed out to students of translation courses.
This will be useful in helping to bring the academic theory closer to actual practice of
terminology and, accordingly, to reduce the gap between the teaching of translation and
professional translation in the future.
The aim of this contribution is to describe the theoretical bases and possible applications
of learning paths in the distance made feasible thanks to new technologies, in order to
give a critical evaluation of a specific cooperative translation program realized on an elearning
platform. We suggest a web-based translation path, as experiences of cowriting
do (Trentin 2008), through a collaborative strategy which takes place in a
(partially) virtual learning community. This learning path on the Moodle platform of
the E-studium project of the Università degli Studi di Perugia has been tested during a
German language translation course. On-line (e-activity) cooperative activities are
intended as follows. In the first place, a 3 or 4 student group is supposed to carry out a
complete translation: beginning from an individual, strictly personal, attempt of
translation regarding different parts of the text, the group as a whole will carry out a
final version thanks to a mutually reasoned revision of the single efforts. Secondly, a
cooperative gathering of auxiliary material is encouraged, whereas, in the third place, a
cooperative construction of a highly specific glossary of terms, which has been
highlighted and identified during the whole activity, will take place. The Moodle
platform allows a complete monitoring of all activities carried out during the process. A
detailed analysis and interpretation of the monitoring on one hand and a survey
submitted to the students at the end of the learning activity on the other, represent the
first step towards a critical evaluation of the formative activity which has been realized.
The paper addresses the use of corpora, both monolingual and parallel, in the
translation classroom. The languages used as examples are Italian and Slovene and the
specific feature dealt with is the translation of nominalization, which is both a
contrastive and translatological issue. After a short presentation of the theoretical
background and the reference corpus available for Slovene, as well as a parallel corpus of
Italian source texts and Slovene target texts, an example is shown of how certain issues
can be better resolved with the use of corpora instead of (or together with) the classical
bilingual dictionary. Monolingual corpora in the target language may show the
frequency and acceptability of a proposed translation equivalent, both as far as general
occurrence is concerned and regarding its distribution in different genres or text types.
Parallel corpora, on the other hand, provide evidence as to how problematic features
(even grammatical ones, as opposed to the frequently discussed lexical issues) are
translated in real translations, what options are available and which are more or less
acceptable within a given genre or text type.
In an economy in which the private sector and academia increasingly consider cooperation in research and training as the logical choice in the name of efficiency, it is puzzling to note that translation, a field of research and study aimed at building bridges over cultural
differences, has been failing so miserably at creating the type of rapprochement and mutual understanding that is so desperately required to ensure that the needs of a
growing industry and field of research are met. This paper is an attempt to understand why translation scholars and translator employers have such strong views about each
other and how these views are the symptom, not the cause, of such mutual misunderstanding.
It will be argued that the reason why this gap exists is that the roles, responsibilities, and expectations of each party are not clearly defined, and that the success of the
(life-long) pedagogical endeavour rests in the establishment of a climate of trust and cooperation
between academia and the translation industry. In conclusion, we will suggest a number of initiatives that might help alleviate the situation.
The present paper is mainly addressed to researchers and/or translators who are daily
confronted with the legal domain in different languages and are willing to approach
legal language through ‘real-life’ examples, to paraphrase McEnery & Wilson’s classical
definition of corpus linguistics (2001: 2). With no claim of being exhaustive, the study
has been devised as a practical guide, a tentative survey of the available corpora for legal
Emphasis has been placed on three main areas, namely, England and Wales, Spain
and Italy, for being the focus of study of an ongoing PhD research project. However,
reference has also been made to legal corpora and subcorpora available outside these
countries, in Europe as well as in the rest of the world.
Primarily conceived as a classical PhD ‘review’ – the crucial step in every research study
in volving a state of the art analysis –, it can be viewed also as a preliminary map for
those who are taking their first steps into the fascinating world of corpus linguistics. The
practical approach is evident from the schematic method adopted: the tables and the
final Appendix are meant to be useful tools for rapid consultation or comparison among
the copious legal corpora listed in the paper.
In more than 10 years of professional activity as translator I have tried to continually challenge the skills that define my professional profile. This includes taking advantage
of my experience as trainer for companies and professionals, and as teacher for university students. My experience has given me an advantageous perspective on the evolution of the translation sector and the professional profiles involved. I see three fundamental aspects to the development of the professional translator: specific
competences, ability in using tools and methodology. Tools are no longer limited to dictionaries, corpora, glossaries and technological supports. Language itself is now an instrument, and education has to take this into account. My courses are focused on methodology, not only on functionalities of translation technologies. I advise students to be flexible and proactive in using such tools, in order to be prepared to embrace the
constant evolution of this profession. Academic institutions should also be more dynamic. In addition to responding to market demands, efforts should be made to trace flexible profiles in order to produce adaptable professionals. A didactic strategy toward
building a bridge between university and job market might include tracking the professional activity of post-degree students assisting them with professional placement
while collecting information that is useful toward the development of strategic teaching curricula.
Tourist communication is notably bedevilled by poor quality translations. This paper
reports on the development of a multilingual terminological and textual database, intended
as a performance-enhancing tool in the process of translating tourist texts. Beside a cursory
description of the project (i.e. data collection, corpus design and analysis, term extraction,
data input), focus will be placed on the tool’s distinguishing feature, namely the
integration of rich phraseological, textual and pragmatic information (e.g. collocations,
communicative functions, usage notes, co-textual setting). Finally, translation-specific
aspects will be highlighted by means of representative examples of how the database is
going to record functional equivalents, especially with respect to the phraseological component
that so remarkably contributes to the effectiveness of tourist communication.
Rivista Internazionale di Tecnica della Traduzione of the Scuola Superiore di Lingue Moderne per Interpreti e Traduttori, University of Trieste (Dipartimento di Scienze Giuridiche, del Linguaggio, dell’Interpretazione e della Traduzione) is a refereed international journal published once a year. The aim of the journal is to provide a forum of discussion for the multifaceted activity of translation as well as related issues such as terminology and terminography, lexicology and lexicography, contrastive analysis, corpus linguistics, and intercultural communication. The journal is mainly focused - but not limited to – specialized, i.e. non-literary, translation and is open to different theoretical approaches including contributions from qualified professionals operating on the translation market. Articles are mainly published in Italian and English, but articles in other European languages are also accepted, provided they are preceded by an Abstract in English. Each issue of the journal contains a section devoted to a specific topic, but contributions on other subjects as well as papers by young researchers and reviews are also very welcome.