Browsing Etica & Politica / Ethics & Politics (2022) XXIV/1 by Issue Date
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- PublicationEtica & Politica / Ethics & Politics (2022) XXIV/1(EUT Edizioni Università di Trieste, 2022)Etica & Politica / Ethics & Politics is an open access philosophical journal, being published only in an electronic format. The journal aims at promoting research and reflection, both historically and theoretically, in the fields of moral, political and legal philosophy, with no preclusion or adhesion to any cultural current or philosophical tradition. Contributions should be submitted in one of these languages: Italian, English, French, German, Portuguese, Spanish. The editorial staff especially welcomes interdisciplinary contributions with special attention to the main trends of the world of practice.
- PublicationTheory and Practice of Analytic Aesthetics. The Issue of Ethical Criticism of Art in the Context of Mcgregor’s Concerns(EUT Edizioni Università di Trieste, 2022)Vidmar Jovanović, IrisMy aim in this paper is to provide clarification of my view on ethical criticism of narrative art in order to respond to some of the concerns issued at it by Rafe McGregor. While McGregor and I share numerous assumptions regarding the cognitive and ethical value of art, we disagree with respect to certain practical concerns. To address his challenge, I argue for the necessity of joining philosophical research with research in other domains, primarily in cognitive sciences, in order to determine the extent to which engagements with art can have positive or negative cognitive and moral impact on the spectators. I am particularly concerned with showing that philosophy needs support from other disciplines in order to ground its claims in scientifically supported theories and to avoid self-generating theoretical disagreements that are populating its debates. However, I also offer an array of reasons for the inclusion of philosophy into other disciplines, and I urge for the recognition of philosophy’s potential to respond to publically relevant issues.
- PublicationConsiderazioni bioetiche sulla riproduzione assistita e sulla maternità surrogata una critica della prospettiva conservatrice(EUT Edizioni Università di Trieste, 2022)Balistreri, MaurizioTo its merit, Alessio Musio’s book gathers the main objections set forth by more conservative bioethical thinking towards assisted reproduction, and reframes them in a new perspective. The Author’s polemic objective is apparently surrogate motherhood (or gestation for others); but for Musio, surrogate motherhood is actually but the final stage in an almost irreversible process which, as assisted reproduction asserts itself, reduces the child born to a product. We shall demonstrate through a series of arguments that it is wrong to equate having a child via medically assisted reproduction techniques with mass-producing objects. Medically assisted reproduction techniques change our conception of birth not because they reduce generation into the production of goods, but because they place us in a state of looking after the wellbeing of those we put into the world from their conception. In the light of the technological revolution, it is no longer morally acceptable to keep opposing new generating methods in the name of an alleged ‘authenticity’ of ‘natural’ conception.
- PublicationAlthusser’s Perpetual Motion: Fabio Bruschi’s “Le materialisme politique de Louis Althusser(EUT Edizioni Università di Trieste, 2022)Montag, WarrenIn this article, I show how Bruschi’s Le matérialisme politique de Louis Althusser offers, against all attempts conjure up a self-generating general theory of history, a reconstruction of Althusser’s work that shows how its systematicity relies upon the unfinished, incomplete and provisional character of scientific research, always subject to constant rectification. I then claim that, from the conceptualisa-tion of the reproduction of the mode of production as dependent upon the singularity of the con-juncture, to the theorisation of the encounter as the source of historical necessity, this constant re-working is crucial to Althusser’s ability to grasp the reality of class struggle.
- PublicationLa categorizzazione etnica e gli etnonimi. questioni teorico-metodologiche fra presente e passato(EUT Edizioni Università di Trieste, 2022)Franc, EricThe aim of this paper is to propose an articulated reflection on some theoretical and methodological problems inherent in the study of a crucial aspect of the way ethnicity works in social space. We refer to the practices of ethnic naming, that is, the kind of social categorization that makes use of ethnonyms. The analysis will be guided by an anti-essentialist, relational and dynamic conception of ethnicity, as well as by the idea that ethnicity, beyond very different local embodiments, possesses a basic unitary core that transcends the distinction between premodern and modern world. In the author’s opinion, the theoretical and methodological investigation of ethnic categorization and ethnonyms, on the one hand, will contribute to support the correctness of this approach to ethnicity, on the other, will provide a rich set of conceptual tools useful for analyzing a particularly complex aspect of identity constructions within both living and extinct populations. With reference to the contemporary world, this “toolkit” should be of decisive help in understanding a phenomenon, ethnicity, whose global impact on a social, political and sometimes legal level is still very noteworthy.
- PublicationWalter Benjamin. A Philosophical Interpretation of the World Through Poetry. Guest Editor’s Preface(EUT Edizioni Università di Trieste, 2022)Herrera Ruiz, Juan CarlosThis special issue dedicated to Wlater Benjamin collects five essays in which a fundamental feature of his critical Theory is explored: his ability to inquire and interpret complex problems of a social, political, legal, and artistic order, through images made out of a Philosophy and a Theory of History that finds its most lucid expression in Poetry and in the Work of Art.
- PublicationDigital Driven Technosciences: Epistemological and Ethical Questioning(EUT Edizioni Università di Trieste, 2022)
;Magnin, ThierryGiorgini, PierreTechnosciences such as biotechnologies aim to analyse, modify and reconstruct livings and complex biochemical components, using top-down or bottom-up approaches to simplify these complex systems. Because of the large number of involved parameters, these technosciences need more and more big data techniques (Artificial Intelligence with machine and deep learning) to find efficient correlations to predict the evolution of systems in their environments. This prediction is especially used to reconstruct livings or artificial pieces of livings in biotechnology and to give medical diagnostics in medicine. Two examples corresponding to these two different cases are analysed in this paper. The aim is to highlight interests and limitations of such digital approach in terms of human free will and responsibility, in relation to provisional scientific truth. A difference is established between classical digital-assisted technoscience and digital-driven technoscience through an epistemological analysis of this new way to practice science. This allows to precise values which are favoured in a digital driven science, what we call an « ethics of knowledge ». Thus “capabilities to predict for making “, based on efficient correlations, look more important than “capabilities to know for making » and determine complex biological mechanisms or causes of evolutions. Consequences about technoscientific mentality are drawn and practical ethical questioning is consequently reassessed. 32 41
- PublicationLe relazioni fra diritto e stato nel pensiero di Giovanni Gentile dalla prefazione ai principî di etica a genesi e struttura della società(EUT Edizioni Università di Trieste, 2022)Volpi, JacopoThe present paper attempts to investigate the conceptual relationship between «Law» and «State» in Gentile’s doctrine. If we consider them discretely, these two elements seem theoretically clear. But, when analyzed together, they assume problematic features and show themselves in a completely different light. When approached in this sense, they entail significant philosophical implications. More specifically, the aim of this article is to argue the condition of «suspension of law» in Gentile’s works. Such condition is determined by the ambiguous position that leaves the legal domain to the mercy of political will, on one hand, and in dependence of morality, on the other. These issues reveal the undeniable contradictions characterizing legal actualism, especially with respect to the concept of law and the relationship between individuals and state authority.
- PublicationVirtualite des modes de production, figures du communisme et apprentissage collectif. Reponse a mes critiques(EUT Edizioni Università di Trieste, 2022)Bruschi, FabioIn this article, I reply to my interlocutors’ questions concerning Le matérialisme politique de Louis Althusser. I address the debate about the continuity or discontinuity of Althusser’s path by clarifying the ontological status of modes of production. I then situate the main figures of communism in Althusser’s work with regards to the distinction between transition and revolution. Finally, I question whether the Althusserian attempt to revive historical materialism can contribute to a communist strategy without resorting to the construction of a new historical myth.
- PublicationLa legge di Saturno. Sulla rappresentazione del [(De˄de)]stino nel Trauerspielbuch di Walter Benjamin(EUT Edizioni Università di Trieste, 2022)Raciti, AndreaIn this work I deal with the theophanic side of the Ursprung des deutschen Trauerspiels by Walter Benjamin. It means that the essence of being reveals itself in the allegorical figure of Saturn and in its rule: the methaphysics of exception. In this context, it becomes perspicuous the nature of the Darstellung der Ideen as the representation of the absolute conjunction between Destiny – the eternal constellation of truth in which the "platonic salvation of phenomena", and the historical reality dominated by the juridical dialectics of violence happens. This conjunction expresses a mutual implication between the two dimensions and it could be written in this form: representation of [(De˄de)]stiny. This ontological perspective is intelligible in the light of the theory of Baroque allegory linked with the doctrine of state of exception as "nearly impossible to decide".
- Publication“L’istituzione delle cose umane”. Tecnica, politica e felicità in Walter Benjamin(EUT Edizioni Università di Trieste, 2022)Sferrazza Papa, Ernesto CalogeroIn this essay, I propose an interpretation of Benjamin’s Politik, a philosophical project of the 1920s that was later abandoned and of which a few essays and fragments remain, through Paul Scheerbart’s science-fiction novel Lesabéndio, published in 1913. Benjamin believed that the novel’s protagonist, Lesabéndio, represented the ‘true politician’. Through an in-depth analysis of Scheerbart’s novel, it is indeed possible to address crucial questions such as the relationship between technique and politics, the temporality of political action and happiness. At the end of the article, critical insights into Benjamin’s political philosophy are offered.
- PublicationStoria e redenzione. elementi messianici nel concetto di immagine dialettica di Walter Benjamin(EUT Edizioni Università di Trieste, 2022)Tagliacozzo, TamaraThe epistemological structure of the “concept of history”65, which Benjamin presents in a monadic dialectical image, is characterized by a temporal dimension neither linear nor progressive, but intensive and ideal, in which the cognitive concept coincides with the ideal (of the good, of justice), which is characterized by totality and eternity. Here emerges the link between the transcedent, ideal theological setting, secretly active in the immanence of redemption, and the immanent setting of the political. In fact, the redeemed past summons into present time, for a fugitive moment, the messianic time of the fulfillment of the Kingdom of God, thus providing the occasion and direction for praxis, for revolutionary action, messianically and theologically motivated, striving for the construction of a society without classes. Political action is made possible precisely by its link to the past, from the cognitive capacity of the historical materialist to restore forgotten moments and bring them to a point of explosion, fueling the destructive and liberating power of the oppressed classes through the image of their enslaved ancestors.
- PublicationAnalytic Aesthetics From Theory To Practice? Reply To Vidmar Jovanović(EUT Edizioni Università di Trieste, 2022)McGregor, RafeIris Vidmar Jovanović ’s (2021) ‘Applied Ethical Criticism of Narrative Art’ has a goal the significance of which can hardly be overestimated, the development of an analytic aesthetic framework for a publicly relevant ethical criticism. She employs public relevance to delineate a critique that is confined to neither the value interaction debate (VID) nor the debate about aesthetic cognitivism (AC), both of which are unique to analytic aesthetics and have little impact beyond the discipline of philosophy, let alone beyond academia. In drawing attention to the relationship between applied ethical criticism on the one hand and the VID and AC on the other, Vidmar Jovanović levels a scathing indictment against the majority of philosophers of art, who are for the most part disinterested in the social and political implications of their theoretical research. In this brief reply, I begin by setting out the practical limitations of analytic aesthetics, endorsing and extending her critique. I then discuss Vidmar Jovanović ’s criticism of my own contribution to AC (McGregor 2018). I conclude with her proposed framework, which makes an insightful and urgent appeal for an analytic aesthetics rooted in both interdisciplinary and phenomenological research.
- PublicationTeoría estética y pueblos ancestrales en Walter Benjamin(EUT Edizioni Università di Trieste, 2022)Vivas Hurtado, SelnichThis article is a reconstruction of the connections between Walter Benjamin and Native American cultures. Mention of the ancestral is recurrent in both autobiographical and academic texts. Benjamin was a regular reader of anthropological research and had become interested in American cultures. Non-European cultures allowed him to broaden his understanding of the origin of languages, the functioning of media and the nature of the art. Benjamin's aesthetic theory, a mixture of mystical experiences and Marxist reflections, allows for a comprehensive reading of indigenous poetry. For this reason, a dialogue is proposed between Benjamin and the Murui-Muina poetry of the Colombian Amazon. In particular, is shown the relationship between the rafue, the uarua, the aura, the reproducibility, the translation and the dumbness of the world.
- PublicationLouis Althusser. Un materialismo della transizione?(EUT Edizioni Università di Trieste, 2022)Viparelli, IreneThis article focuses on Bruschi’s interpretation of Althusserian theory, developed in Le matérialisme politique de L. Althusser. The first part of the article focuses on Bruschi’s analyses of aleatory materialism. Bruschi argues that Althusser’s latest writings embody a reformulation of historical materialism and a new representation of the “transition”. I question whether this rewriting does not rather imply a dissolution of the “transition” problem. The second part focuses on Bruschi’s reading of the Althusserian representation of the revolutionary process. Without conflicting with his key assumption of the deep continuity of Althusser’s path, I argue that the principle of the “autonomous action of masses” represents a turning point in the shaping of the link between theory and praxis.
- PublicationSic transit. Osservazioni sulla teoria althusseriana della trasformazione sociale ricostruita da Fabio Bruschi(EUT Edizioni Università di Trieste, 2022)Fanciullacci, RiccardoIn this paper, I discuss the reconstruction offered by Fabio Bruschi of the Althusserian theory of social transformation. In particular, I consider the way in which the emergence of historical novelty is conceived, comparing it with other theories. Subsequently, I critically examine the interpretation that he offers of the so-called " materialism of encounter", thereby raising some objections.
- PublicationAggirarsi tra le macerie della storia. Saggio sugli intellettuali, il potere e la società(EUT Edizioni Università di Trieste, 2022)Tedesco, FrancescomariaWhat is the role of the intellectual? And what is the relationship between culture, society and power? This essay attempts to answer these key questions by starting from the ideas that Norberto Bobbio had given us after World War II in the pages of his book Politica e cultura (Politics and Culture ), in which he sketched a figure of the intellectual that was neither partisan nor Olympian, yet vaguely evocative of that Weberian wertfreiheit that already seemed a very problematic concept at the time. Bobbio’s words, which already testified to the crisis of modern public reason, had to be set against the postmodern atmosphere and its effects, its critics and its advocates. Did postmodernism authorise disengagement, inviting us to cultiver notre jardin? Should it be discarded in order to recover a ‘romantic’ image of the engaged intellectual, a sort of ‘Green Beret’ of culture? The proposal of this essay is that the intellectual should play the role of saboteur, only to find himself rummaging through the rubble of History that he himself has contributed to disseminating.
- PublicationHistoire et revolution. L’althusserisme politique de Fabio Bruschi(EUT Edizioni Università di Trieste, 2022)Monferrand, FredericIn this article, I analyse how Bruschi’s Le matérialisme politique de Louis Althusser redefines the idea of revolution through the conceptualisation of the over- and under-determination of class struggle and a reconstruction of the Marxist topic around the fundamental concepts of the modes of production and the ideological State apparatuses. I then question the possibility of the strategy of communism to bypass the necessity to « mythologise » the course of history and the tension between the idea of a communism « already there » in the emancipatory actions of the masses and communism as a mode of production.
- PublicationPursuit of happiness e speranza post-moderna. Rorty su Havel, Patočka (e oltre)(EUT Edizioni Università di Trieste, 2022)Mori, ValerioIn this paper I examine Rorty’s article The Seer of Prague, in which He reflects on Václav Havel’s speech at the US Congress – February the 21th, 1990 – and analyzes Havel’s approach to politics in the light of Martin Heidegger’s and Jan Patoč ka’s Philosophy. Rorty appreciated Havel’s and Patoč ka’s engagement in defense of democracy and civil rights in Seventies’ Czechoslovakia (Cahrter77), despite He criticizes their philosophical aptitude as a political task. On the one hand, I try to argue that Rorty’s claim about freeing liberal-democracy from the problem of metaphysical foundation – as a matter of private life of the philosopher – is incoherent; on the other hand, I try to enhance Rorty’s distributive justice argument (in Achieving our Country) in the light of nowadays populist’s challenge to liberal democracy.
- PublicationBioethical and Biopolitical Implications of Torture(EUT Edizioni Università di Trieste, 2022)Daverio, MargheritaABSTRACT The article analyses from a philosophical point of view the bioethical and biopolitical implications of torture as an attempt to justify violence according to the (alleged) benefits for defending the State or obtaining information potentially useful for the prevention of a terrorist attack. The core argument of the paper is that the regulatory framework of the prohibition of torture would be strengthened establishing a qualitative definition of torture as the control of political authority over individual human life. Mentioning some claims appeared in the period after the tragic events of September 11, 2001, the article shows that in the juridical and political debate torture has been increasingly defined in a quantitative way, basing it e.g., on the measure of pain and on the consequences for the victim. The Author then briefly describes bioethics and human rights perspective; main categories of biopolitics envisioned as politics over life are then sketched according to Foucault’s and Agamben’s views. Both bioethics and biopolitics, from different perspectives, deal with individual human life; a classical account (Aristotle’s one) of this issue offers the basis for a conceptualization useful to compare critically bioethical and biopolitical perspectives and to set a qualitative definition of torture. From this perspective, torture can be seen as violence on individual human life, aimed at the annihilation of the victim's identity and as an act of domination by political authority over the victim.