Il confine è molto più di un concetto astratto o di una linea di demarcazione. Da sempre campo di tensioni e convergenze geografiche, politiche, storiche, sociali, culturali, è oggi oggetto di una rinnovata attenzione, sia in ambito accademico sia nel dibattito pubblico, sulla scia delle sue molteplici riconfigurazioni nello spazio globale. Per le università di Trieste e Udine del Friuli Venezia Giulia, promotrici di questo volume, la questione del confine costituisce un interesse vivo e costante: lo testimonia la storia stessa della regione che, dall’invasione longobarda ai giorni nostri, ha visto il susseguirsi di invasioni massicce e penetrazioni violente, di aspri conflitti e strenue difese, ma anche l’incontro di persone, la contaminazione di lingue e culture profondamente diverse tra loro, la trasmissione e sedimentazione di saperi.
È da tali presupposti, da un’idea quindi ampia di confine, che in questo volume convergono molte delle riflessioni sull’argomento elaborate all’interno del Dottorato interateneo in Storia delle società, delle istituzioni e del pensiero. Dal Medioevo all’età contemporanea. Dottorandi/e e dottori/esse di ricerca hanno declinato il tema del confine e dello sconfinamento – anche disciplinare – in funzione della propria ricerca o di un aspetto peculiare della stessa. Il volume offre dunque ai lettori e alle lettrici un percorso attraverso cui esplorare il confine con metodologie e approcci diversificati, rispecchiando così il Dottorato che l’ha generato: un corso che in questi anni ha fatto del dialogo e della sua spiccata interdisciplinarità un valore fondante.
Irene Candelieri, Laureata in filosofia e in psicologia presso l’Università di Trieste, si è perfezionata in Studi sulla cultura delle donne presso l’Università Ca’ Foscari di Venezia e in Animal Ethic Welfare presso l’Università di Padova, specializzandosi poi come psicoterapeuta a indirizzo junghiano. Ha condotto ricerche antropologiche sul campo in Mongolia (con una borsa di studio del MAE – Ministero Affari Esteri italiano e della NUM – National University of Mongolia), in Sud America e in Indonesia, occupandosi di antropologia del sacro, sciamanesimo e sistemi di cura tradizionali. Ha pubblicato una monografia sul caso delle terapie assistite con animali selvatici, oltre a contributi in riviste e in volumi collettanei. Le sue attuali linee di ricerca includono i rapporti fra storia dell’antropologia e della psicologia, la psicologia del sogno e la dimensione simbolica nei processi creativi. Nell’ambito del dottorato interateneo delle Università di Trieste e Udine, sta concludendo il suo progetto di ricerca dedicato alla figura dell’antropologo Franz Boas.
Carlo Daffonchio si è laureato in Storia a Pisa, dove ha anche conseguito il diploma presso la Scuola Normale Superiore. Attualmente è dottorando presso le università di Trieste e Udine, dove sta conducendo una ricerca sulla figura dell’abate Agostino Beliardi, un agente diplomatico della Francia attivo a Madrid nella seconda metà del Settecento. Si occupa di storia della diplomazia e storia dell’informazione in età moderna, ma occasionalmente si interessa anche all’uso della Storia nella cultura pop contemporanea.
The fight against tribalism constituted one of the main tenets of FRELIMO’s
discourse during the “struggle for national liberation”. However, the concept
has also been employed by the Front’s opponents, namely its dissidents and the colonial authorities, to denounce the supposedly discriminatory nature of its practices. Applying the instruments of textual and prosopographical analysis to FRELIMO’s publications as well as to colonial records, this study deconstructs the Front’s anti-tribalist narrative, showing its ambiguous and variable character, and correlates it to the dissidents’ discourse and to a measurement of ethno-regional dominance within FRELIMO. As a result, references to tribalism are shown to constitute a communicative vector employed by alternative political networks in their competition for scarce resources.
This article is dedicated to highlighting the strong historical-canonical interest that can be found in the theological production of the Carmelite master John Baconthorp (ca. 1290-1349), especially in the fourth book of his commentary on the sentences, called 'Quaestiones canonicae'. For example, a number of questions on papal power, infallibility and apostolic poverty are examined, in which Baconthorp fruitfully combines theology, historical research and canon law. In addition, particular attention is given to the debate on indulgences for the dead. In such debate the Carmelite theologian seems to reject the Dominican positions that affirm the validity of such indulgences and extend papal jurisdiction over purgatory, while preferring the positions of Cardinal Ostiense, who denies any exercise of the keys over purgatorial souls.
According to traditional diplomatic history, during Eighteenth century the European States strengthened their control over the diplomatic apparatus and make it an instrument increasingly aligned with national interests. But the new diplomatic history has questioned this traditional modern State’s narrative and has drawn a more multifaceted picture. On the basis of this challenge, this paper aims to demonstrate, through the letters of French consuls in Spain in 1761/1762 stored in the Diplomatic Archives of Nantes, how the diplomatic apparatuses of different European and non-European States, and even private agents, could help each other to pursue interests and to achieve goals of various historical actors. The result is the picture of a permeable diplomacy with porous borders, but even with its limits.
During the 70s, sociologists carried out interviews with drug addicts about their life stories, aiming to overcome stereotypical representations. These sociological studies can be analysed as historical sources for reconstructing the spread of drug addiction using a bottom-up approach. This paper reflects on some recurring themes present in those interviews, highlighting the drug addicts’ point of view and self-representation. Drug addicts become thus active subjects and producers of meaning, rather than objects of representation.
The purpose of the article is to demonstrate the existence of an impassable border between humanity and animality into Giambattista Vico’s Diritto universale. To do this, first the characteristics of human nature according to Vico will be shown. Then the applicability of this definition will be supported also to the “bestioni”, the cruel post-diluvian wandering men. Finally, the role of the idea of God will be investigated, in order to demonstrate its importance for Vico's definitions
The paper studies the concept of need as a border, which is located between nature and human history and helps to explain the relationship between them. The first part shows, analyzing the views of Paci, Sartre, Marcuse, and of some critics of the very notion of need, such as Lyotard, Deleuze and Guattari, how need can’t be reduced just to nature or to scarcity. In the second part, studying some works of Heller, Rovatti and Marcuse, the paper claims that need can neither be reduced just to a historical or political dimension. Thus, the third part, analyzing some observations by Marx and by some of his readers, argues that need – reducible neither to an only natural or economic dimension, nor just to a historical or political one – constitutes a “bridge”, capable of clarifying the passage between these areas.
The personal and intellectual biography of Franz Boas testifies to a tireless scientific research and public commitment dedicated to the study of cultures and to the "human manifestations of mental life". Moving from Germany with a background in physics, geography and natural sciences, he arrived in the United States opening the field to cultural anthropology as a discipline, becoming one of the pioneers in ethnolinguistic and ethnomusicological studies. We will therefore try to outline a mapping of these Boasian disciplinary encroachments, showing how they are connected to his geographic crossings, from the first journey through the Canadian ice of Baffin Island (1883-1884), up to the field research carried out in British Columbia from 1885 to 1930.
Communal Italy is known to be a land of autonomous cities that had a direct control over their territory in the countryside. The contado, inhabited by villagers and houses of rural nobles, is usually perceived as a distinctly separate territory, completely subjected to the control of the dominant city. According to this narrative, aristocratic families opposed fiercely the urban ruling class in the desperate attempt to maintain a semblance of their ancient power. But was it really like that? Introducing a case-study of political conflict in Bologna at the end of XIIIth century I will show how communication and interaction between city and countryside was not only possible, but even necessary. The opposing parties of Lambertazzi and Geremei had to search for help in the countryside while rural nobles exploited this conflict to strengthen their domains and fight their ancient enemies.
The main purpose of this paper is to outline how the city of Udine, subordinated to an ecclesiastical power, administered its justice during the last decades of the Patriarchate of Aquileia. I chose to focus on criminal justice, in particular on banishment (bannum) and other milder exclusion measures, such as relegation (confinacio). In order to better understand these practices, I studied and compared city laws, city council deliberations and criminal records. I highlighted that since the 1380s the city started emancipating from patriarchs’ authority, exceeding the juridical boundaries that characterized the traditional structure of the prince-bishopric.
Sacred space as a category has encountered a renewed interest in recent studies. The essentialist view of early scholars has been questioned, and the produced reality of sacred space is now at the center of scholars' research. Sacred space is not anymore an immutable and fixed space in the environment: instead, it's recognized as a product of human activity, and continuously subject to transformation and adaptive processes. As such, its border is often porous, contended, shifted. In this article, I will clarify how the categories of sacred and sacred space have been studied in the last couple of centuries, and with the help of many examples from around the world, I'll discuss the many typologies of sacred space and the different borders it is defined from.
Il confine è molto più di un concetto astratto o di una linea di demarcazione. Da sempre campo di tensioni e convergenze geografiche, politiche, storiche, sociali, culturali, è oggi oggetto di una rinnovata attenzione, sia in ambito accademico sia nel dibattito pubblico, sulla scia delle sue molteplici riconfigurazioni nello spazio globale. Per le università di Trieste e Udine del Friuli Venezia Giulia, promotrici di questo volume, la questione del confine costituisce un interesse vivo e costante: lo testimonia la storia stessa della regione che, dall’invasione longobarda ai giorni nostri, ha visto il susseguirsi di invasioni massicce e penetrazioni violente, di aspri conflitti e strenue difese, ma anche l’incontro di persone, la contaminazione di lingue e culture profondamente diverse tra loro, la trasmissione e sedimentazione di saperi. È da tali presupposti, da un’idea quindi ampia di confine, che in questo volume convergono molte delle riflessioni sull’argomento elaborate all’interno del Dottorato interateneo in Storia delle società, delle istituzioni e del pensiero. Dal Medioevo all’età contemporanea. Dottorandi/e e dottori/esse di ricerca hanno declinato il tema del confine e dello sconfinamento – anche disciplinare – in funzione della propria ricerca o di un aspetto peculiare della stessa. Il volume offre dunque ai lettori e alle lettrici un percorso attraverso cui esplorare il confine con metodologie e approcci diversificati, rispecchiando così il Dottorato che l’ha generato: un corso che in questi anni ha fatto del dialogo e della sua spiccata interdisciplinarità un valore fondante.
This article aims to examine the relocations carried out by artisans between the 14th and 15th centuries. These relocations became constant objects of judicial sentences produced by governments and by guilds, which were both interested in protecting their technological improvements. There was cities that lost numerous skilled labor, with a strong and fierce opposition to labor mobility, and other cities that sought to attract and divert these flows into their urban spaces. Public institutions in several places actively mobilize in the search for specialized craftsmen who allowed the flowering or the implantation ex novo of new industries. These movements of workers were actually irregular and, sometimes, they even ended in the return into the native city.
The author aims to reconstruct two Italian police delegations to Portugal, which took place in the spring of 1908 and the first months of 1909. In particular, the article explores the biographies of the three commissari – officials of the Italian civil police, the Pubblica Sicurezza – who were sent on these two missions, as well as the arrangements they made during their stay in Portugal. The Italian policemen, called in following the political and institutional crisis caused by the assassination of the Portuguese king Carlos I, had the objective of reorganising the security services around the institutional palaces, helping the government in the reform of the police and, finally, assisting their Lusitanian colleagues in the investigation of the assassination attempt on the king. The essay aims to place this case study within transnational policing studies, with the intention of making a first contribution that answers the following questions: how much and how were relations between the police forces of different countries organised? What criteria were used to select personnel for these international police missions? How much did the transnationality and internationalisation of the police contribute to their modernisation and professionalisation?
Established in 1936 in Tetouan, the Party of National Reform – hizb al-Iṣlāḥ al-watanī – was the first nationalist party recognized in the Franco-Spanish Protectorate. Tetouani nationalists were at the centre of an international network that provided continuous contacts, exchanges, and activities with also Arab nationalists and with the other nationalist parties of the French Zone. However, the existence of two colonial states and two different policies as well as practices of domination resulted in a double national leadership who were reproducing colonial frontiers. Although the constant attempts to coordinate at the regional and international levels, the different colonial legacies and the different interests of each group involved in the national project resulted in a fragmented national leadership at the advantage to the King Mohammed V.
In this paper, I propose a pragmatic analysis of metaphor’s informative use in a corpus of Italian popular scientific articles in physics. Today, most information about scientific progress in physics reaches the public through dissemination and popular scientific articles. According with traditional analysis of science communication, a long tradition placed dissemination at the margins of scientific communication, but for many aspects this channel represents today an important test, that forces scientists to master unusual tools in science communication, like metaphors, to stand up in front of a public of non-specialized readers. With some examples taken from the corpus, I show how authors use metaphors in these articles, what are the advantages and problems of their choices and the correlation between metaphorical language and the characteristics of the popular scientific genre.
This paper aims to consider the boundary role of metaphysics in the realm of ethics within the contemporary debate of analytic Thomism in regard to the naturalistic fallacy. Two interpretations of Aquinas's natural law and natural inclinations will be critically analysed. On the one hand, John Finnis's interpretation – New Natural Law Theory –, which excludes the metaphysical realm in the consideration of Aquinas's natural law; on the other hand, Ralph McInerny and Anthony Lisska's approach, which acknowledges the unavoidability of metaphysics in Aquinas’s ethics. Finally, through the analysis of Thomistic natural law made by Dario Composta (1971), the relevance of the first-person experience in identifying what normatively pertain to human nature will be shown.
Women has served as reporters since the Nineteenth century, but their crucial role in shaping news and foreign correspondence still needs to be examined. This is particularly true in the case of Cold War journalism. For instance, the activity of Ada Princigalli (1925-2017), former correspondent for Ansa news agency in Beijing, has not been studied yet. In 1971 Princigalli was the first woman journalist accredited in the People’s Republic of China and she remained in the country until the end of 1978. Thanks to the integration of new sources, especially oral interviews, this study will shed light on Princigalli’s experience in Beijing and on her contribution to the knowledge of Chinese society in Italy, paving the way for future research.
This article aims to reconstruct the defensive organization of the Florentine Republic, according to the information contained in the citizen statutes of 1415. The analysis will focus on management of the fortifications, carry out by numerous offices established by city government for the defense of the borders and the protection of the conquered territories. The results will outline a complex organization, structured on several levels of control and will show the considerable number of officers and soldiers, as well as the remarkable economic resources necessary to make this system work properly.
In early modern times, Ontagnano was a border village between the Venetian and Austrian territories of Friuli. Since the late 16th century, it hosted a group of Jews. In the following centuries, the settlement grew up with families from both the Venetian lands and Habsburgian dominions. Their mainly activities were credit management, trade, livestock farming and tax collecting. The coexistence with local Christian society was peaceful and mutual until the Heads of Commune tried to expel them at the beginning of 18th century. This was a temporary crisis since the Jews’ residence in Ontagnano persisted until the end of the century. Considering the Economic Turn developments in Jewish History, this paper provides a panoramic reconstruction of this small community
This contribution traces the history of exile of Aurelio Saffi, which includes the crossing of multiple borders: those internal to Italy in the first half of the nineteenth century; the Alpine one of Switzerland; that of the English Channel up to England. This trip is mostly intimate and relational, thanks to the type of sources used: the letters from Saffi's correspondence exchanged with his mother, Maria Saffi Romagnoli, and his future wife, Giorgina Craufurd. Through these communication channels, and through the autobiographical chronicle of the Ricordi, it’s possible to accurately reconstruct the moods, the routine and the relationship landscape of the years spent by Saffi outside Italy.