Il volume n. 4 contiene anche gli Atti del Convegno internazionale Phantasia. Il pensiero per immagini degli antichi e dei moderni (Trieste, 21-22 aprile 2004), a cura di Lucio Cristante e Marco Fernandelli. L’incontro rientra nell’ambito del Réseau thématique europeénne «Le phénomène littéraire aux premiers siècles de notre ère».Phantasia è la parola con cui l’antichità greco-latina, da Empedocle ai Neoplatonici, designò quel fenomeno psicologico – la visione interiore – grazie al quale l’atto produttivo dell’artista, del retore o del pensatore si salda in dinamica unità con il processo della ricezione.
Browsing 04. Incontri triestini di filologia classica (2004-2005) by Title
In Catullus’ poem 65 two attitudes of the poetic voice coexist, a formal and discursive one (represented by the letter to Ortalus) and a meditative-lyrical one (represented by the heartfelt apostrophe to his brother just died). But neither a linear vision (sequel of primary speech - speech secondary - primary speech) nor a cyclic vision, recording a ‘frame and inset pattern’ (primary speech = frame; secondary speech = center), truly represent the structure of the poem: rather, it must be understood as a dynamic psychological unit, in which the relationship between external and internal form, between communicative and expressive attitude, and between the temporal dimensions of consciousness and of opportunity is woven from the invention and work of calibrated images. Careful study of the images also allows us to deal with new tools for effective criticism.
Compared to the traditional connection ars-ingenium, the inspiration is certainly an element nearest to the ingenium, because of its irrational nature. Unlike of the ingenium however, it qualifies more as an event that as a requirement and provides, at least in the traditional conception, the intervention of a deity. Some odes of Horace, especially in books I-III, reflecting in their conduct the dialogue of the poet with the inspiring divine force, a dialogue in which alternating cooperation, conflict, terror and exaltation. Rather than determining the belief of Horace in the reality of the images he created, it is studied the operation in terms of their power of representation of a psychology of the poetic inspiration. In Ode III, 4 there is also a special relationship between the poetic investiture received from Horace and his ability to sing the lene consilium (also a gift of the Muses), with which Augustus ruled the world at peace now. Both the Epistle to Augustus that the Ars poetica extensively develop this correspondence between civilizing Musa and inspiring Musa, so that in the notion of sapientia, as it is configured in the Ars, it is possible to capture the final synthesis of an extensive study linking moral and political function of poetry, art of the good governance and poetic inspiration.
Having clarified the definition of the term phantasia which I have chosen to adopt, I will present an analysis of carmen 23 by Paulinus of Nola and particularly the description of a lamp which is involved in the story of the miraculous healing of the eye of the monk Theridius. This ekphrasis is based on models taken both from the pagan literary tradition and from the Bible. Far from being a demonstration of virtuosity of the poet, it plays a very important role in the interpretation of the poem. I also propose to interpret this carmen 23 as placing in the prologue images from the Gospel of Saint John. The ultimate aim of this presentation is to understand how Paulinus wants to show his audience the word of God.
One of the characteristics of the ancient novel is the imaginary universe in which it takes place, set in remote or indefinite time, and in strange or exotic landscapes. This mental journey furnished by the novel to the readers is mediated by the narrative voice, which leaves some traces in the story. The expression «fantasy of a narrative voice» will be understood in a double meaning: the imagery which the narrative voice creates from the narrated world, and the image of itself which it creates. How does the narrator explain his imaginary world to readers who are absent or distant from it? How can he transform the readers into witnesses of the story? And how, at the same time, can he leave a mark of his presence, even of his narrative act? With the aid of some examples, we will try to grasp the process which the narrative voice employs in order to create the phantasia of the narrated world and that by which this world is narrated.
The figures of the Cyclops in ancient Greece are developed through a rich variety of expressions in literature and in the figurative arts. The Etruscan civilization, in turn, made an interesting and original contribution to this development in the field of figurative representations, based on the Homeric episode. In a previous paper, I proposed to rewrite and reinvestigate this theme in literature from the Augustan era and I discovered an imagery of the Cyclops peculiar to the Romans, based on imitatio and innovatio. Roman art follows a different route from literature but one which suggests, again, a sense of continuity and which, in addition to imagination in itself, is related to Greek Cyclopes. The figures of Cyclopes have found various forms of expression within the major art forms of ancient Rome. This paper will not be an exhaustive study of these representations, but will focus primarily on three major characteristics. Overall, the Latin uniqueness lies partly in the treatment of certain iconographic traditions of the Cyclops abandoned by Greek imagery, such as Cyclopes blacksmiths, related to the worship of Vulcan, or the tale of Polyphemus and Galatea, inspired by Alexandrian poetry, which is a more intimate kind of scene, found especially in paintings in Roman private villas. Finally, the Homeric tradition reached its apogee in the Roman art in the imperial age, when we find Polyphemus invited to the banquet of the Caesars, placed a grand staging and in the context of new Odyssean adventures. We insist on the learned weaving of Greek literary and artistic traditions operated by the Romans, alongside Roman innovations.
Philip of Thessalonica edited his Στέφανος, an anthology of epigrams, around the mid I century AD, thus imitating the collection that Meleager had produced, with the same title, roughly one hundred and fifty years before. The whole proem to Philip’s Στέφανος is constructed as an aemulatio of Meleager’s first poem, even though somewhere it ostensibly contrasts it: various elements - partly already familiar to the critical debate, partly still to be thoroughly examined - stress a clear programmatic function in AP IV 2. Starting from his proem, Philip provides an example of what the style of the πλότεροι (v. 6) is supposed to be: elaborate and, above all, concise. The poets of this collection speak on several occasions with a virulent anti-Callimacheian tone; but in their overall interpretation of the ‘genre’ and in their detailed use of generic repertoire, they prove to be ‘Alexandrian’ to the utmost.
In the famous simile of the divided line Plato, among the arguments for the superiority of dialectical reasoning over mathematical reasoning, demonstrates the operation without employing images. Aristotle on the other hand, perhaps in contrast to this Platonic conception, constantly points out that no form of thought devoid of images is possible. The Neoplatonists (Plotinus and Proclus particularly) give the debate a peculiar turning by reaffirming the possibility of thought devoid of sensitive components.
Greek poetry of late antiquity shows a particular attention to the visual aspects of the poetic word, giving a totally different meaning to the centuries-old ecfrastic tradition and to the agonal comparison between painting and poetry. The predilection for the visual elements and the tendency to expand the description so as to make it the subject enacting this poetics are the most striking features of the new aesthetic, which is expressed most fully from the third century AD.
The discourse of ancient art developed by Pliny the Elder in the Naturalis Historia seems to favour above all the xenocratic concept of mimesis, as opposed to phantisia's one valued by Cicero and Quintilian. The scholar wants to demonstrate that some plinian anecdotes about this question are better understood if they are related to phantasia, even if this concept is never openly mentioned in Pliny's work.
Secondo la testimonianza di Teone di Smirne, il commentatore greco di Platone, c’è un serio disaccordo tra Platone e i peripatetici - quale Adrasto - sullo stato del moto dei pianeti, in particolare sulle ‘stazioni’ e ‘retrogradazioni’ delle cosiddette stelle vaganti. Questi fenomeni erano la spia di un moto uniforme e regolare o ben più complesso? Nel secondo secolo d.C., le radici del dibattito erano lontane dall’essere limitate al dominio scientifico. Questa relazione presenta alcuni tentativi di spiegare le varie rappresentazioni del vagare delle stelle, tentando di chiarire il loro contesto filosofico-religioso.
This paper aims to propose a review of the relationship between mythos and logos in the work of Plato, from the complex use of those two words in the preamble to the Timaeus, the prologue of book 9 of the Politeia and the pseudo-digression of the Politicus on the need for a change of method. The analysis of these passages reveals that mythos, far from opposing the logos as a radically incompatible discourse, or even far from being the matrix which must escape the logos, appears as a kind of logos specializing in the representation of a reality which is imaginary and invisible. Speech of phantasia for the intellect, the myhos helps get closer to the truth, even to correct errors in logic. The presentation of the Atlantis myth - the most horrible myth of classical mythology - and of the myth of Cronos shows fully the double postulation of mythical discourse, sometimes turned to fiction, sometimes as if to objective reality.
In a number of his treaties (De Usu Partium, De Placitas Hippocratis et Platonis...), Galen returned to the role of phantasia: what kind of images are they? In which part of the body are they located? Should we consider them as symptoms of illness? We should reconstruct an intellectual approach that is based partly on experience, and partly on imagination which came into play to supply that which the physician could not observe. Melancholy too was credited with the power to stimulate the imagination. The medical discussions on the black bile, from Rufus of Ephesus to Johannes Actuarius, gave birth to a medical theory of enthusiasm.
The paper analizes the epigram of Lutatius Catulus on Roscius preserved in Cic. nat. deor. I 79 in order to define the poetic and sentimental imaginary of Cicero. Lutatius’ model for the ecstatic worship of the beloved, his model for the assimilation of the beloved to a god - in sum his overall model for expressing love in poetry - is Sappho (fr. 31 Voigt).
Quintilian’s Institutio oratoria, a major work in the history of the rhetoric of phantasia, emphasizes the duality inherent in the concept, conceived as a distanced and verisimilar imagination whose efficacy seems paradoxically to increase as the distance diminishes. If Quintilian, after Cicero and before Philostratus, emphasizes the need of invention in the oratory, opposing phantasia to mimesis, he also especially developed the idea that the euphantasiôtos orator imagines the events he describes as if he experienced them himself, abolishing precisely the distance that characterizes the imagination of illusion. Just as fools and dreamers – a philosophical topos included in an original rhetoric - the good speaker must delude himself in order to delude the reader. Phantasia comes close to madness, an element that clearly reflects the work of Seneca the Elder, and on which the theories of Quintilian shed light in an original manner.
Starting from the 12th speech by Dion Chrysostom (or Olympic Speech), this paper will address the problem of the representation of divinity in the visual arts and in poetry, and the relationship between imagination and imitative creation.
In imperial age, Plutarch wondered what made the greatness of Greece. In this context the three words which are the title of this paper come into play, three words closely interrelated and in turn all related to the divine: muses, enthousiasmos and phantasia. The challenge will be to compare the reading that Plutarch made of these terms to their emergence and thematization respectively in archaic and classical Greece. With the help of some examples, we seek to understand the changing relationship of humans to the divine.
Per la quarta crociata (1202-1204) l’unica fonte greca contemporanea è la Χρονικὴ διήγησις (Narrazione cronologica) di Niceta Coniata (c. 1150-c. 1217). Tra le opere che testimoniano un interesse storico per la quarta crociata si annovera anche un poema epico-cavalleresco, l’Enrico, ovvero Bisanzio acquistato, pubblicato a Venezia nel 1635, di cui è autrice Lucrezia Marinella, che presenta la vicenda secondo la tradizione veneziana. La conoscenza di Niceta Coniata (II 7,13-14; 8,1), attraverso i suoi tre volgarizzamenti, è particolarmente evidente nel passo in cui Lucrezia Marinella ricorda gli ostacoli frapposti dai Bizantini all’avanzata dei crociati (LXIII-LXV) e soprattutto rievoca la battaglia del Meandro.
The of the title "For the identity of ekphrasis" must not give rise to the expectation that this paper provides an ‘identity card’ listing the features of ekphrasis, as numerous summaries of the main theoretical and practical aspects of the phenomenon already exist. We will focus, instead, on certain features of ekphrasis, which could be considered marginal, and which nevertheless all present a certain problem. A first section will focus on the strictly philological aspects, followed by a second with some remarks on literary theory. Thus this paper, while not presuming to be either systematic or exhaustive, contributes to defining ekphrasis in a broader framework of phantasia.
In the organization of Martianus Capella’s De nuptiis Philologiae et Mercurii, the allegorical representation of the seven Artes (liberales) as characters-actors in the plot of the story, eponymous of the seven liberal disciplines, is an element which conveys the comprehensive message of the work as a whole; thus, it is not merely an allegorical process, and furthermore it is strikingly for its originality. The peculiarity of the complex figurative apparatus of the single artes is directly functional to the run of knowledge (or, in a neo-platonic way, of memory) under the philosophical-allegorical fabula of the marriage between Mercury and Philologia; therefore, it contributes to the global exegesis of the poetical and cultural meaning (or meanings) of the work. The description thus provides a unitary historical and epistemological vision of ars and provides the key for its comprehension.