The awarding of port services to private operators has become one of the most important tools for port
authorities to retain some control on the organization and structure of the supply side of the terminal
market. This paper discusses the awarding of terminals in European ports from an EU legal and policy
context. It also seeks to provide in-depth information on current practices and perceptions of port
authorities around Europe on tendering and contractual arrangements linked to the awarding of terminals.
The relevant issues relate to the terminal awarding processes, the duration of the terminal award contract
and the contract stipulations. The paper also seeks to understand whether the practices are influenced by
factors such as terminal size, the competitive environment in which the port operates and the geographical
The purpose of the article is to discuss the operations of the public bus sector and the impacts of its
privatization in Tirana, the capital of Albania. In addition to a synopsis of public transport operations in
post-communist East Europe, the first part of this article presents an overview of public transport
operations in Tirana from 1990 to the present day. The second part of the article discusses the findings of
three sets of transportation surveys.
Gap maintaining behavior significantly affects the traffic flow modeling under heterogeneous traffic
conditions. The clearance between two adjacent moving vehicles varies depending on several traffic
conditions. From the data collected on the gap maintaining behavior it has been observed that vehicles
maintain different gaps when travelling under different traffic conditions and this is also influenced by
lateral position of the vehicle. Mallikarjuna (2007) has found that this variable gap maintaining behavior
can be explained using a macroscopic traffic characteristic called area occupancy. In this study, these
relationships would be used in deciding the cell width which is the basic input for cellular automata (CA)
based heterogeneous traffic flow models. It is proposed that the dominant vehicle in the traffic stream, its
lateral position, and lateral gaps on either side are the governing factors in deciding the cell width. Cell
width has been finalized based on this input and it is found to be varying when area occupancy is varying
from 3 to 15%.
Now, 10 years after the first plans, we analyse in this paper what has happened with Underground
Logistic Systems (ULS). The major question in this paper is: Which barriers and enablers led to the
failure of ULS and what ULS spin-offs can be found nowadays? Several factors can be classified as
barriers or enablers. The main conclusions that can be drawn are that the opportunities for try-out were
too limited; political support could have been gained on higher levels; the costs were too high, the
catchment area was too limited; ULS in itself is a very promising system, but there was no one clear goal.
In particular, the lack of a thorough and positive business model in combination with a lack of sufficient
freight volumes almost immediately guaranteed the failure of the initiative. The spin-offs seem to have
taken place in different directions: ranging from rather soft impacts (e.g. scientific knowledge) to more
hard developments (adopting and developing transport and tunnelling technologies), and, although
difficult to quantify, they are of great value.