The study presented here aims to validate some operating speed prediction models calibrated on two-lane rural roads by using speed data collected in Northern and Southern Italy. Operating speed is defined as the speed at which drivers of passenger cars travel on a dry road in free flow conditions during daylight hours and it is calculated using a specific percentile of speed distribution, typically the 85th. Speed measurements were carried out by using laser detectors in connection with previous environmental and traffic conditions. The study is addressed to emphasize the reliability and easy application of one predictive speed model working both on tangent segments and on circular curves. The calibration phase involved roads in the Northern Italy, while the validation phase involved roads in the Southern Italy. Three models were validated applying them on eight two-lane rural roads falling within the road network of the Province of Salerno with features that reflect those adopted in the calibration phase; the selected models to be validated present the simplest analytical structure for type and number of explanatory variables and for the performance diagram shape of the operating speed values. The validation procedure was to estimate some synthetic statistical parameters as mean absolute deviation, mean squared error and coefficient of variation. The results allow in a simple way to trace continuous operating speed profiles on two-lane rural roads and to carry out safety analyses on the horizontal alignment.
This study considers the problem of estimating the reduction of roundabout entry capacity caused by pedestrian zebra crossings. An empirical procedure is developed on the basis of field observations collected at an urban four-leg roundabout located in Padova (Italy). The disturbance caused by pedestrians to approaching traffic is measured using crosswalk occupancy times, rather than pedestrian volumes like in previous studies. The proposed method leads to the determination of a capacity reduction index, which can be applied in operational analyses to obtain realistic estimates of roundabout entry capacities taking into account the impact of pedestrian crossings. Also, the possible effect of introducing pedestrian-actuated signal control on zebra crossings is evaluated, using simulation, with reference to alternative pedestrian volume and signal timing scenarios.
Estimation of transportation network capacity is important in analysing network performance. In the existing literature, the capacity of a network is defined in conditional terms as a theoretical construct called “reserve capacity”. This may be limited because, when considering local land-use development, the hypothetical uniform increase in O-D flows is not always realistic. This paper, introducing the concept of “capacity function”, proposes a generalized concept of road network capacity which does not require information on either current O-D demand or the corresponding growth trend. Attention focuses on deterministic and stationary situations in which only one path is available for each O-D pair. Some examples regarding simple study cases demonstrate the capacity of this approach to solve problems and, consequently, to contribute to the analysis of network performance.
The object of the paper is to investigate the effect of signal synchronization on the traffic flow patterns on the network and validate results of synchronization problem in signal setting design. A platoon based traffic model is applied to solve both one-way and two-way synchronization problems in under-saturated conditions. Assessment of results through dynamic traffic assignment model shows that solution found is rather robust and, if more traffic is attracted by the improved arterial performance, larger benefits can be achieved on the whole network. A specific analysis has been conducted to point out the representation of queue propagation and the gridlock phenomenon.