This paper deals with the phenomenon of Complacency which is one of the causes of human error
detected in the domain of ship accidents. The term Complacency is present as an influential social and
psychological factor which has similar cause in shipping and port commercial operations. The causes of
ship accidents from the aspect of Complacency are defined as Management Complacency, Leadership
Complacency and Self-Induced Complacency. All of these causes are reflected as causes of accidents in
ports at the management and operational level. The main domain in which Complacency is present as
influential element is decision-making process as well as in ship and port commercial operations.
This article aims to analyze the potential of Iranian ports for carrying some containerized cargo, from
the Far East to the European Union, which is usually transported via traditional shipping routes. The idea
of diverting cargo via an “Iran route” emerged from an examination of economic, trade and maritime
transportation trends and events. This study presents a new idea for a freight route, designed in four
segments for the benefit of the carrier. In order to make assumptions about the future in what are
undisputedly widespread uncertain conditions, a scenario method has been employed. Following this a
plausible future plan for a new terminal has been developed taking into account geographical, technical
and economic themes for serving the container transit market until 2011.
The paper illustrates the current state of the transport infrastructure in Poland, with special attention to
the road, rail and airport infrastructure. It highlights the recent trends in freight and passenger transport
and discusses the project for improving and updating the transport networks. Though some improvements
are taking place, funds availability remains the main problem for the enhancing of the current poor state
of the transport infrastructure.
The paper presents an analysis of the costs of shipping containers from four Chinese ports to
representative central European destinations. It is demonstrated that the sum of costs by sea and costs
over land, using both truck and rail transport, clearly favours the Italian ports, above all those of Genoa
and Trieste for a geographic range that does not include all the Northern countries of the European Union
and Russia but does cover a considerable portion of the southernmost cities of these countries such as
Milan, Munich, Vienna, Budapest, Bern, Lyon, and Kiev.
Other Italian ports can compensate for the handicap of the greater distance from this range of
production and consumption zones, if they are appropriately reorganized with lower costs in direct
competition with the Northern European ports, particularly the port of Naples, where COSCO has set up
operation. However, despite the evident advantages in terms of distance and costs, Italian ports are unable
to compete with those of Northern Europe on account of inefficiency affecting both their internal
structure and inland transport. The purpose of the paper is to define costs in each sector (shipping costs,
port costs and inland distribution costs) and to compare the relative port positions.
Four of the nine international transport corridors pass through the territory of Ukraine: №3, №5, №7,
and №9. In recent years Ukraine conducted an active policy supporting the European initiatives on the
international transport corridors and offered variants of corridors to the European community. In the field
of a water transport it is planned to carry out the construction of new and reconstruction of existing
infrastructure (regarding corridors № 9; TRACECA; Baltic - Black Sea) in the main Ukrainian ports.
The paper considers the situation in the Ukrainian waterways as a part of the international transport
corridors. It presents an analysis of the existing situation and some planning measures. In order to
optimize and rationally development the inland waterways and seaports of the Black Sea – Azov Sea
region it is necessary to speed up the working out and official approval of the regional transport ways
network. Regarding Ukrainian seaports this task is carried out within the framework of program
TRACECA, and also by Steering Committee of Black Sea PETRA and working group on transport of the
Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation.
To connect the new members countries of EU two approaches are considered: (1) the use of the
Danube River due to restoration of navigation in its Ukrainian part, providing an exit to the Black Sea; (2)
the creation of new inland water-transport links providing a more rational and uniform distribution of
freight traffics from the Central and Northern Europe (using the third largest river in Europe - Dnepr
River running into the Black Sea).
It is important to assess also a condition of development of transport flows in the neighboring states
(states of European transport corridors), in particular in the Russian Federation (Big Ring Project and
others). There are good prospects of Ukrainian waterways involvement in the system of international
transport corridors. Some improvements of the existing structures are needed together with an optimized
use of Ukrainian transport potential. There is a large reserve of capacity which represent a base for an
optimistic prediction of the future Ukrainian waterways development as part of European transport axis.