A methodology for determining optimum cell size for a grid based traffic flow model for
heterogeneous traffic is proposed in this paper. The cell size is an important factor to determine as it
affects the computational efficiency and model accuracy. The objective function minimizes three aspects
namely the difference of distance headway in case of cellular automata and grid based traffic flow model,
the total number of cells to represent different types of vehicles and multiple of cell width that gives
closer representation of the different road widths. The presented method is found better then the previous
attempt which tries to find the cell size by trial and error.
The aim of this paper is to emphasize the role of the developing network of roads and motorways in the
Polish economy and its impact upon expanding competitive solutions in alliance with the ferry shipping
industry. The paper begins with an assessment of Poland within its geographical location in Europe and of
its economic connections with other European nations. The first part of the paper presents the current
situation of road infrastructure in Poland. The second part presents the proposed transport corridors which
cross a series of European countries and the plans for development of the sections of these routes located
in Poland. The next part assesses the advantages for Poland and for ferry shipping in particular.
This article presents a detailed historical overview of the existence of the largest railway in the world,
which runs for 5,867 miles and connects Far East with Western Europe. Over the years it gained many
names, such as Trans Siberian Land Bridge, Trans Siberian Route, Trans Siberian Line and Trans
Siberian Railway but each one of the names stand for the longest rail route across the continent of
Eurasia. This article provides an opportunity to look at early stages of railway’s construction, its
uniqueness, interesting path of development, survival of two World Wars and finally its establishment as
a vital part of continent’s logistics chain. Throughout the years, the Trans Siberian Railway (TSR) has
been proven to have the longest history of commercial freight operation between Europe and the Far East.
The changes faced by the global rail industry in recent years have brought a redefinition of some of the
traditional regulatory instruments available in this sector. This paper, focusing on price and quality
regulation, discusses how these instruments have been applied in several countries where private sector
participation in railways has been introduced mainly through concession contracts, and where some form
of vertical and/or horizontal unbundling has been implemented.
This paper discusses how the current trend towards increased private participation in the rail industry is
reshaping the way in which Governments should address the main regulatory challenges arising from the
particular economic and technical characteristics of this industry. We review the role of railroads in the
last two decades and examine the characteristics of the most relevant processes of private participation
around the world. The lessons learned from these changes suggest that many of the traditional regulatory
paradigms in this industry are being replaced by more flexible schemes of public intervention. Although
this change does not fully preclude direct participation by the Government, it seems that the traditional
monopolistic rail company is dead as the dominant model around the world, and new forms, such as
franchises or concessions competing on the tracks are progressively gaining relevance.