This article focuses on relevant European Directives and decisions affecting ship-source pollution, such
as (1) Directive 2005/35/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 7 September 2005 on shipsource
pollution and on the introduction of penalties for infringements: and (2) Council Framework
Decision 2005/667/JHA of 12 July 2005 to strengthen the criminal-law framework for the enforcement of
the law against ship-source pollution. The vacuum created by the two judgments of the European Court of
Justice in Cases C-176/03 and C-440/05 (both) Commission v. Council, annulling Council Framework
Decision 2005/667/JHA, was filled in by Directive 2009/123/EC of the European Parliament and of the
Council of 21 October 2009 amending Directive 2005/35/EC on ship-source pollution and on the
introduction of penalties for infringements. The penalties introduced by the Directive cover offences
committed by natural and legal persons. The purpose of this Directive is to incorporate international
standards for ship-source pollution into European law and to ensure that persons responsible for
discharges of polluting substances are subject to adequate penalties, including criminal penalties, in order
to improve maritime safety and to enhance protection of the marine environment from pollution by ships.
Bus lanes have been widely implemented internationally for improving the performance and quality-ofservice
of surface transit systems. Despite their importance to a city’s transit system, bus lanes are
frequently violated by road users resulting in subpar service standards. Using extensive field data
measurements from Athens, Greece, we analyze violation rates and study their effects on bus lane
operational characteristics. Results indicate that: i. reduced perceived enforcement increases violation
rates; ii. congestion in adjacent lanes significantly affects bus lane violation characteristics; and, iii. bus
speeds are significantly reduced with increased violations.
Study of the basic traffic flow characteristics and comprehensive understanding of vehicular interaction
are the pre-requisites for highway capacity and level of service analyses and formulation of effective
traffic regulation and control measures. This is better done by modeling the system, which will enable the
study of the influencing factors over a wide range. Computer simulation has emerged as an effective
technique for modeling traffic flow due to its capability to account for the randomness related to traffic.
This paper is concerned with application of a simulation model of heterogeneous traffic flow, named
HETEROSIM, to study the relationships between traffic flow variables such as traffic volume and speed.
Further, the model is also applied to quantify the vehicular interaction in terms of Passenger Car
Equivalent (PCE) or Passenger Car Unit (PCU), taking a stretch of an intercity road in India as the case
for the study. The results of the study, provides an insight into the complexity of the vehicular interaction
in heterogeneous traffic.
This paper is based on an in-laboratory experiment and aims to explore the impact of various
personality factors on route-choice behavior in the presence of partial pre-trip travel time information.
Specifically, these factors are geographic ability and sensation seeking characteristics. The results show
that while the variables related to perceived and realized travel times are important, the personality factors
are also significant. Drivers with lower geographic abilities tended to use the main route more often and
to switch their routes less often, compared to those with higher capabilities. Drivers who scored higher on
sensation seeking tended to switch their routes more frequently, compared to other drivers.