Poliarchie/Polyarchies is multi-disciplinary journal which aims at promoting the encounter of the social sciences and humanities, ranging from sociology and political science to history, economics, law and philosophy. The analysis of political and social change can indeed be investigated from different perspectives and with the help of a variety of methodological tools. Poliarche/Polyarchies embraces a range of contemporary issues: processes of supranational integration and democratization in the world; the transformation of contemporary societies under the pressure of immigration and environmental challenges; the crises of “electoral democracy” in Europe and the development of a deliberative model of democracy; the potential “clash of civilizations” and socio-religious conflict; the resurgence of nationalisms and micro-regionalism in Europe and in the world; the integration of policy processes into networks and of communities into new frameworks and governance systems. The journal has an anonymous referee system and two issues per year are expected.
This article examines the process of derogation of the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (ECHR). It focuses on the COVID-19 emergency situation and on the limits posed to fundamental human rights and freedoms by the measures implemented in response to the sanitary crisis in Europe. It is argued that derogation is acceptable if under the close supervision of Council of Europe bodies (CoE). Moreover, any emergency measures which determine the derogation or limitation of human rights and fundamental freedoms should be reasonable and limited in scope and time, and thus should have an exceptional and temporary nature and should be constantly tested against the principles of necessity and proportionality.
The historical period determined by the health emergency has highlighted the question relating to the emergency laws, and even more the increasingly incisive and pervasive role of non normative acts. As a consequence, a tension between authority and freedom arises. It is now necessary to question the fundamental dimensions and tendencies of that tension.
The health crisis generated by the pandemic spread of the Covid-19 virus in spring 2020 had an impact not only on people’s values and lifestyles, economic growth and social reorganization, but also on international relations among states: the European Union appeared weak and fragmented; the US attacked China for having kept silent about the risk of contagion and accused it of producing the virus in a laboratory; developing countries were abandoned in a situation of serious shortage of health facilities and the World Health Organization has shown that it did not have the decision-making and financial instruments to act. In this context and in the midst of a health emergency, the author administered an online questionnaire from which he extrapolated, for this contribution, only the answers of the youth sub-sample. These were submitted to an analysis of the principal components and the results related to some socio-attitudinal variables: sex and political orientation. The data reveal, on the one hand, within the European Union, the perception of the spread of Euro-scepticism and populism and the increase of isolation and competitiveness among the states, to be responded to with new goals and mechanisms for the functioning of the Union; on the other hand, the need for post-emergency management in solidarity with developing countries, with greater investment in research and health systems and greater recognition of the WHO.
What are the motivations, ideas, and expectations of young people regarding the future during the Covid-19 pandemic? This was the central question in the survey we conducted, and which led to various findings. There were those who paint the future in an apocalyptic way, others who see a world of hope, of social and economic reconstruction that will put solidarity, the environment and work at the center. A moral dimension also emerged from the responses of the interviewees, social responsibility towards human values, respect for others, and above all the desire to participate in political choices. The answers also show a good degree of awareness of the current political difficulties and of the current condition of youth in Italy.