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Title: Vortex formation behind movable leaflet: experimental and numerical studies
Other Titles: Numerical and experimental study
Authors: Vukicevic, Marija
Supervisore/Tutore: Pedrizzetti, Gianni
Issue Date: 30-May-2011
Publisher: Università degli studi di Trieste
Fluid structure interaction (FSI) is one of fundamental phenomena encountered everywhere in nature or in industrial systems as well as one of the most studied and the most challenging topics in the fluid mechanics. Its research presents the core objective of this dissertation, along with experimental study of artificial heart devices. Better understanding of FSI could turn the still unexploited phenomenon into a powerful tool for resolving wealthy of multi-physics problems. Recently computational fluid dynamics community has been putting enormous efforts to uncover, make clear and answer yet numerous issues related to this developing topic. In addition, the FSI is often followed by the vortex formation, one more phenomena that could be both powerful driving force as well as distracting, disturbing occurrence. Consequently, this dissertation will begin with addressing some open issues related to the fluid-structure interaction associated with the simple system made of movable rigid leaflet and an unsteady viscous fluid flow. Such two-dimensional model, even if it appears extremely simple, is able to produce fairly rich flow features which deserve careful analytical and accurate numerical solution. Thus, we have performed a significant number of numerical experiments with the objective to uncover the role of the structure inertia in the overall behavior of the fluid-leaflet system, under the different flow recurrences. For that purpose, we have constructed a strong-coupling code and resolved the fluid and structure dynamics simultaneously, paying particular care of solution accuracy around the moving boundary. The complex problem of large fluid deformation in response to the rapid structure movements has been resolved by the time-dependent conformal mapping, exclusively developed for this specific physical arrangement. The numerical findings, even if theoretical in nature, allowed for the classification and characterization of body’s and fluid dynamics in functionality of different structure inertia and Strouhal numbers, which have been used as free parameters in all numerical experiments.
The study is completed by a brief analysis of the more realistic system of actual prosthetic heart valves. Besides many problems that follow the performance of mechanical heart valve prosthesis, the complications related to the complex blood-leaflet interaction are a key factor. The intraventricular flow is characterized by large vortical structures, without significant turbulence, in a smooth circulatory pattern that, in presence of pathological conditions or mechanical devices, could be disturbed. Thus, among the criteria for the assessment of mitral valve functionality and mechanical valve design are the proper vortical features inside the left ventricle. Until nowadays the standard mechanical valves, designed originally for the aortic replacement and without exceptions symmetrical, have never satisfied the regularity of natural vortical dynamics. Thus, we have been motivated to investigate the flow features downstream of asymmetrical prototypes, exclusively designed for the mitral replacement with attempt to better mimic the natural intraventricular flow. Experimental outcomes allowed for preliminary conclusions that the break of symmetry in the novel prosthesis creates the asymmetrical vortical flow in the left ventricle, which is more similar to the natural one, although the concept introduced by this prototype has to undergo deeper testing and careful improvements before querying in the real hearts.
Ciclo di dottorato: XXIII Ciclo
Keywords: Fluid structure interaction, mechanical heart valves, vortex formation
Type: Doctoral
Language: en
Settore scientifico-disciplinare: ICAR/01 IDRAULICA
NBN: urn:nbn:it:units-9121
Appears in Collections:Ingegneria civile e architettura

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