Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10077/6136
Title: Co-introduction of charges on urban roads and motorways in metropolitan areas: a model-based investigation
Authors: Bonsall, Peter
Maher, Mike
Keywords: Road pricingModelMotorwayMetropolitanDifferentiation
Issue Date: 2009
Publisher: EUT Edizioni Università di Trieste
Source: Bonsall, P., Maher, M.(2009) “ Co-introduction of charges on urban roads and motorways in metropolitan areas: a model-based investigation”, European Transport \ Trasporti Europei, (43) pp. 64-82
Series/Report no.: European Transport / Trasporti Europei
43
Abstract: 
This paper explores the relationship between charges on motorways and on other types of road. It
draws on a model-based study of different pricing scenarios which was conducted within an EU-funded
investigation of differentiated infrastructure charges (the DIFFERENT project). The scenarios covered
strategies ranging from full charging on all roads irrespective of category, on motorways only, on
motorway access roads, on urban roads only, and at cordons. A number of different charge levels were
tested. The test results suggested that positive impacts and revenues are maximised by applying charges
to each link which reflect the contribution to externalities made by the marginal user of that link -
irrespective of whether it is a motorway link or an urban link. However, when implementation costs are
taken into account, the best performing scheme was a cordon charge combined with a per-km charge for
use of motorways outside the cordon. Fixed per-km charges on motorways or on urban roads are much
less effective than charges which are differentiated to reflect congestion on individual links. The
introduction of charges only on motorways produces little benefit and causes unwanted diversion to urban
roads, and although the introduction of a charge designed to protect the level of service enjoyed by
strategic motorway traffic succeeds in achieving that goal, it yields little revenue and has little overall
impact on delay or other externalities. The paper highlights the practical implications of these results and
notes that, although it is likely to be easier to gain political support for introducing charges on motorways
than on other types of road, the benefits from so doing are generally lower than can be obtained by
introducing charges on congested urban roads.
Type: Article
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10077/6136
ISSN: 1825-3997
Appears in Collections:European Transport / Trasporti Europei (2009) 43/XV

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